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Item #: OP1119E-241
EDWARD WHYMPER Frank Smythe 1940 1st UK ed Hardcover Very Good-Near Fine
By Smythe, Frank S.
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London, 1940, 1st edition. 330 pp, 24 plates. Rust Hardcover with no dust jacket, cover or spine may be faded and/or may have former owner's inscription inside, Very Good to Near Fine condition.

The first serious biography of the man who did the first ascents of Chimborazo and the Matterhorn. Whymper made the first ascents of Chimborazo, Cayambe, Antisana, Carihuairazo, Sara Urco, Cotocachi, Sincholagua.

He was best known for his first ascent of the Matterhorn and the ensuing accident on the descent that killed half the party. At the end of his climbing career he travelled to the Canadian Rockies (1901 and 1903) to explore and climb in a publicity capacity for the C.P.R. (one chapter on this in the book). Most of the book is on climbs in the Alps, and very much is directly quoted from Whymper’s letters and communications. 

From Wikipedia:
Edward Whymper (April 27, 1840–September 16, 1911), was a British illustrator, climber and explorer best known for the first ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865. On the descent, four members of the party were killed.

Early life
Whymper was born in London on April 27, 1840to Josiah Wood Whymper and Elizabeth Claridge being the second ofeleven children. He was trained to be a wood-engraver at an early age.In 1860, he made extensive forays into the central and western Alps to produce a series of commissioned alpine scenery sketches.

Among the objects of this tour was the illustration of an unsuccessful attempt made by Professor Bonney's party to ascend Mont Pelvoux, at that time believed to be the highest peak of the Dauphiné Alps. Whymper successfully completed the ascent of Mont Pelvoux in 1861,the first of a series of expeditions that threw much light on thetopography of an area at that time very imperfectly mapped. From the summit of Mont Pelvoux, Whymper discovered that it was overtopped by a neighboring peak, subsequently named the Barre des Écrins, which, before the annexation of Savoy added Mont Blanc to the possessions of France, was the highest point in the French Alps. Whymper climbed the Barre des Écrins in 1864 with Horace Walker, A. W. Moore and guides Christian Almer senior and junior.

The years 1861 to 1865 were filled with a number of new expeditions in the Mont Blanc massif and the Pennine Alps, among them the first ascents of the Aiguille d'Argentière and Mont Dolent in 1864, and the Aiguille Verte, the Grand Cornier and Pointe Whymper on the Grandes Jorasses in 1865. That year he also made the first crossing of the Moming Pass. According to his own words, his only failure was on the west ridge of the Dent d'Hérens in 1863.

The Matterhorn
Professor John Tyndall and Edward Whymper emulated each other in determined attempts to reach the summit of the Matterhorn by the south-western, or Italian, ridge.

In 1865 Whymper, who had failed eight times already, attempted unsuccessfully to climb a couloir on the south-east face with Michel Croz. After Croz left for a prior engagement with Charles Hudson, Whymper failed to secure the services of Val Tournanche guide Jean Antoine Carrel, and instead planned on trying the eastern face with Lord Francis Douglas and the two Zermatt guides, Peter Taugwalder father and son.

Whymper was convinced that its precipitous appearance when viewed from Zermatt was an optical illusion, and that the dip of the strata, which on the Italian side formed a continuous series of overhangs, should make the opposite side a natural staircase. This party of four was joined by Hudson and Croz, and the inexperienced Douglas Hadow. Their attempt by what is now the normal route, the Hörnli ridge, met with success on July 14, 1865, only days before an Italian party. However, on the descent, four members of the party (Croz, Douglas, Hadow and Hudson) slipped and were killed, the rope between them and the three surviving members of the party snapped as they slid.

A controversy ensued as to whether the rope had actually been cut, but a formal investigation could not find any proof. The account of his attempts on the Matterhorn occupies the greater part of his book, Scrambles amongst the Alps (1871), in which the illustrations are engraved by Whymper himself. The accident haunted Whymper: 'Every night, do you understand, I see my comrades of the Matterhornslipping on their backs, their arms outstretched, one after the other,in perfect order at equal distances—Croz the guide, first, then Hadow,then Hudson, and lastly Douglas. Yes, I shall always see them…'

Exploration in Greenland
Whymper's 1865 campaign had been planned to test his route-finding skills in preparation for an expedition to Greenland in 1867. The exploration in Greenland resulted in an important collection of fossil plants, which were described by Professor Heer and deposited in the British Museum. Whymper's report was published in the report of the British Association of 1869. Though hampered by a lack of supplies and an epidemic among the local people, he proved that the interior could be explored by the useof suitably constructed sledges, and thus contributed an important advance to Arctic exploration. Another expedition in 1872 was devoted to a survey of the coastline.

South American Exploration
Whymper next organized an expedition to Ecuador, designed primarily to collect data for the study of altitude sickness and the effect of reduced pressure on the human body. His chief guide was Jean-Antoine Carrel, who later died from exhaustion on the Matterhorn after bringing his employers into safety through a snowstorm.

During 1880, Whymper made two ascents of Chimborazo (6,267m), also claiming the first ascent. He spent a night on the summit of Cotopaxi and made first ascents of half a dozen other great peaks. In 1892, he published the results of his journey in a volume entitled Travels amongst the Great Andes of the Equator. His observations on altitude sickness led him to conclude that it was caused by a reduction in atmospheric pressure, which lessens the value of inhaled air, and by expansion of the air or gas within the body, causing pressure upon the internal organs.
 
The effects produced by gas expansion may be temporary and dissipate when equilibrium has been restored between the internal and external pressure. The publication of his work was recognized on the part of the Royal Geographical Society by the award of the Patron's medal. His experiences in South America having convinced him of certain serious errors in the readings of aneroid barometers at high altitudes, he published a work entitled How to Use the Aneroid Barometer and succeeded in introducing important improvements in their construction. He afterwards published two guide books to Zermatt and Chamonix.

Canadian Rockies
In the early 1900's, Whymper visited the Canadian Rockies several times and made arrangements with the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) to promote the Canadian Rockies and the railway in his talks in Europe and Asia. In exchange, the CPR agreed to pay transportation costs for himself and his four guides. In 1901, Whymper and his four guides made the first ascents of Mount Whymper and Stanley Peak in the Vermillion Pass area of the Canadian Rockies. On September 16, 1911, Whymper died at the age of 71, shortly after another climb in the Alps. He refused medical attention to the point of very death by locking his hotel door. He is buried in Chamonix, France.

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